Park ecosystems

The Maremma Park is a territory rich in ecosystems where natural and wild environments are connected with landscapes where there is the human presence since ancient periods, in a dynamic accurate equilibrium to the conservation of its biodiversity.

Forest environment

It is the typical environment of the Uccellina Mountains, small mountains where there are about 3,000 hectares of trees and bushes; they are hills and the highest location is Poggio Lecci (417m s.l.) The forest vegetation is rather diffferent, from oaks that are the dominant species, to the typical Mediterranean vegetation, with a dense bush rich in different species.

Pine woods

Typical and characteristic wood of the coastal landscape in Maremma, the pine woods are the result of an intense work of reforestation made over the centuries. It is an example the Grand Duchy Pine Wood that almost uniformly covers, for about 600 hectares, the area between the Ombrone river, the sea and the slopes of the hills.


Coastal environment

The Maremma Park coastline extends for 25 km from Principina a Mare to Talamone and it includes the Ombrone river mouth, in the north of Marina di Alberese. It ‘a very different type of coastline, characterized by sandy beaches with large dunes as Collelungo and Principina, bays as Cala di Forno and cliffs as the coast in Talamone.


The territory of the park has about 700 hectares of wetlands, which show a past where ponds, swamps and marshes were the dominant landscape of Maremma. The marshy areas are located near the Ombrone river mouth and the Trappola marsh, a wetland of international importance, is close to its right bank.

Agricultural environment

The agricultural environment is one of the most important area in the Maremma Park, where cultivated fields, vineyards, fruit trees, olive groves and wide grasslands  are close to the wooded hills,  to the pine wood and wetlands that extend on the right and on the left of the final flow of the Ombrone river. Between the  cliffs and the pine wood, in the area which goes from Scoglietto and to Collelungo, there are large grasslands as the Piana dei Cavalleggeri and the Piana delle Caprarecce and large lawns are along the road to Marina di Alberese, where the Maremma cows graze.

Hydrographic net

In addition to the Ombrone river, the territory of the protected area is characterized by a net of secondary water fows, mainly artificial, made during the reclamation process of the alluvial plain.


Known caves inside the park area are 20.


Grotta dello Scoglietto (1)
Buca dell’Anselmi (2)
Grotta dei Cenci (3)
Pozzo del Granduca (4)
Buca delle Ossa (5)
Grotta delle Caprarecce (6)
Grotta la Fabbrica (7)
Grotte di Collelungo (8)
Buca della Verifica (9)
Grotta dell’Acquazzone (10)
Tana di Buratta (11)
Grotta di Cala di Forno (12)
Grotta la Casa (13)
Buca dei Mori (14)
Grotta di Stoppa (15)
Grotta del Pescinone (16)
Grotta di Golino (17)
Pozzo Doberdò (18)
Grotta di Poggio Bernarda (19)
Grotte di Spaccasasso (20)


Scoglietto cave


The cavity opens in the most internal part of the cove of the rocky cliffs (falesia) in Scoglietto area. The very wide entrance, allows the sun rays to light the main area, situated at approximately eight metres above the lower plain. To access this area, it is necessary to climb up the triple slope characterised by sand and material of decay of the walls of the cave. The flat area has undergone archaeological investigations which led to the finding of many burial places (see historic card).
The cavity carries on for about 50 metres through a narrow tunnel, which could be used only by archaeologists, terminating with an inner area populated by chiropters, as many findings of guano testify.


Caprarecce cave


This cave can be reached through the itinerary A3 and is formed by three huge areas linked with one another. Each of these areas have a huge separate entrance from outside. The soil and various entrances are on the same level as the plain facing the cliff (falesia). The internal vault of the cavity is very high and this determines huge and covered spaces which, along with the possibility of being lit by the sun, make it a favourable environment for human beings. This was for mankind a real natural shelter.
Some excavations, carried out by researchers during the thirties, discovered remains of old fires, as evidence that human beings used to frequent this area.


Fabbrica cave

grotta3 This natural cavity is created by the fusion of some diaclases originated by the karstic activity on the calcareous layers which form the cliff (falesia).

The presence of stalagmites and limestone drips outside the cavity shows us that the falesia has moved back: this might have changed the original entrance.
The cave opens up at seven metres of height compared to the plain. His higher location has not allowed the emptiness of the deposit for marine erosion, unlike what has happened in other cavities nearby. This has also allowed some archaeological excavations, through which many prehistoric objects and rests of bones belonging to animals from the same period have been descovered. Particularly important is the statigraphy which has well documented the passage from Major Palaeolithic to Protourignaziano.

Acquazzone cave


It can be found along the path which leads to San Rabano. It presents the characteristics of a morphology with Fessura (gap), probably due to the geological falling in front of the calcareous formation. The entrance leads to a series of small areas, one on top of the other, which had obstructed the main gap. This is a typology of cavity which is particularly frequent in the Park. Other examples are:


1 Pozzo del Granduca
2 Buca dei cenci
3 Grotta della Verifica
4 Grotte di Poggio Spaccasasso